178 Επιστημονικές μελέτες: Κανένα χειροπιαστό όφελος από την γενικευμένη χρήση μάσκας

Μετα-ανάλυση 178 επιστημονικών μελετών: Κανένα χειροπιαστό όφελος από την γενικευμένη χρήση μάσκας

Γράφει ο Κωνσταντίνος Αρβανίτης-Konstantinos Arvanitis, Διδάκτωρ Καρδιολογίας Πανεπιστημίου Αθηνών

ΜΙΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΡΧΙΣΑΝ ΤΑ ΣΧΟΛΕΙΑ, ΑΝΑΒΙΩΝΕΙ
ΤΟ ΓΝΩΣΤΟ ΘΕΜΑ ΤΩΝ ΜΑΣΚΩΝ ΣΕ ΠΑΙΔΙΑ

ΕΙΣΑΓΩΓΗ

– Τον Απρίλιο του 2020 ο Παγκόσμιος Οργανισμός Υγείας (Π.Ο.Υ) συνιστούσε την χρήση μάσκας ΜΟΝΟ από ασθενείς και από το υγειονομικό προσωπικό, ενώ ΔΕΝ συνιστούσε την τακτική χρήση μάσκας από τον γενικό πληθυσμό.

– Τον Ιούνιο του 2020 άλλαξε τις συστάσεις του και τώρα πια συνιστούσε την χρήση μάσκας και από υγιείς, σε πολυσύχναστους χώρους.

Όμως, σε μία μετα-ανάλυση επί 178 επιστημονικών μελετών, που ανέθεσε ο ίδιος ο Π.Ο.Υ και που δημοσιεύτηκε στο LANCET, δεν προέκυψε κανένα χειροπιαστό όφελος από την γενικευμένη χρήση μάσκας!

(Μόνο η κοινωνική απόσταση του 1 μέτρου έδειξε κάποια μέτρια αξία στην αποφυγή μετάδοσης.)

Έτσι ο Π.Ο.Υ δεν προχώρησε στην σύσταση της μάσκας για γενικευμένη χρήση.
_____________________________________________

Η ΠΑΡΟΥΣΑ ΚΑΤΑΣΤΑΣΗ

Από τα μέσα του 2020 είδαν το φως ένα σωρό επιστημονικές εργασίες και μετα-αναλύσεις, που αφορούσαν την καθημερινή χρήση μάσκας, που όλες σχεδόν ανέδειξαν ένα σωρό προβλήματα υγείας που δημιουργεί αυτό.

Θα ασχοληθώ σήμερα με τα αποτελέσματα 44 επιστημονικών μελετών, σχετικών με την χρήση μάσκας, όχι ειδικά στα παιδιά, αλλά σε κάθε άνθρωπο. Από αυτές, οι 22 δημοσιεύτηκαν μετά την κήρυξη της “πανδημίας“, ενώ και οι άλλες 22 πριν από την κήρυξη της “πανδημίας”.

Όλες μιλούν για σημαντικές παρενέργειες που προκύπτουν από την καθημερινή χρήση μάσκας και τις τεκμηριώνουν με συγκεκριμένες μετρήσεις.
___________________________________

ΒΑΣΙΚΕΣ ΣΥΝΕΠΕΙΕΣ ΕΠΙ ΤΩΝ ΑΕΡΙΩΝ, ΚΑΤΩ ΑΠΟ ΤΗΝ ΜΑΣΚΑ

1) Η συγκέντρωση οξυγόνου κάτω από την μάσκα παρουσιάζει σημαντική μείωση κατά 12,4%, σε σχέση με τον αέρα στο δωμάτιο (18,3% αντί για 20,9%).

2) Η συγκέντρωση του διοξειδίου του Άνθρακα (CO2) κάτω από την μάσκα αυξάνει σε τρομακτικά επίπεδα, περίπου 30 φορές πάνω από την συγκέντρωση στο δωμάτιο (14.142 ppm, αντί για 464 ppm στο δωμάτιο)!

Από αυτές τις δύο διαταραχές των αερίων προκύπτουν ένα σωρό προβλήματα.
___________________________________________

ΒΑΣΙΚΕΣ ΑΝΑΠΝΕΥΣΤΙΚΕΣ ΣΥΝΕΠΕΙΕΣ ΑΠΟ ΤΗΝ ΜΑΣΚΑ

1) Αύξηση της αναπνευστικής αντίστασης (μεταξύ εισπνοής-εκπνοής) της τάξεως του 128%

2) Αύξηση του όγκου νεκρού χώρου κατά 80%

Τα δύο αυτά μαζί οδηγούν σε μείωση της ανταλλαγής αερίων κατά 37%
__________________________________________

ΒΑΣΙΚΕΣ ΦΥΣΙΚΕΣ ΣΥΝΕΠΕΙΕΣ ΚΑΤΩ ΑΠΟ ΤΗΝ ΜΑΣΚΑ

– Αύξηση της υγρασίας
– Αύξηση της θερμοκρασίας

Τα δύο αυτά μαζί ευνοούν την ανάπτυξη λοιμώξεων από μικρόβια, ιούς και μύκητες, ως γνωστόν.

36 φυσικοί τρόποι αντιμετώπισης των λοιμώξεων
________________________________________

ΒΑΣΙΚΕΣ ΚΑΡΔΙΑΝΑΠΝΕΥΣΤΙΚΕΣ ΣΥΝΕΠΕΙΕΣ

– Αύξηση καρδιακών παλμών
– Άνοδος αρτηριακής πίεσης
– Εξάντληση με λίγη άσκηση

Το τελευταίο είναι ιδιαίτερα εμφανές σε αθλητές, αλλά και σε παιδιά στο μάθημα της γυμναστικής ή στο παιχνίδι κατά το διάλειμμα.

Ακόμη και χαλαρή ασκησούλα προκαλεί υποξία με παράλληλη υπερκαπνία.
Η μείωση του οξυγόνου είναι 3,7% και η αύξηση του CO2 είναι 20%.

Ο καρδιακός παλμός ως δείκτης υγείας της καρδιάς
_______________________________________

ΕΙΚΟΝΕΣ

Για να μην κουράζω με μακροσκελείς αναφορές συ παρενέργειες, ποσοστά και μελέτες, τα δίνω συνοψισμένα σε 2 εικόνες.

ΕΙΚΟΝΑ 1: Βασικές διαταραχές αναπνοής Μετα-ανάλυση 178 επιστημονικών μελετών: Κανένα χειροπιαστό όφελος από την γενικευμένη χρήση μάσκας

ΕΙΚΟΝΑ 2: Σύνοψη όλων των παρενεργειών της συστηματικής χρήσης μάσκας, ταξινομημένες κατά συστήματα.

Δείτε ακόμη: “Φοράτε μάσκες στα παιδιά”: Η πιο επικίνδυνη οδηγία που ακούστηκε ποτέ

Πανεπιστημιακή μελέτη για τη χρήση μάσκας στα παιδιά και τα προβλήματα που αναπτύσσονται

Μάσκες-αποστάσεις-τεστ στα σχολεία: Η νομική αποδόμηση των μέτρων από το Πρωτοδικείο της Βαϊμάρης

Κλειστοί χώροι-Σχολεία-Εστίαση~Τί γίνεται με τις συσκευές καθαρισμού αέρα κύριοι “ειδικοί”; Μετα-ανάλυση 178 επιστημονικών μελετών: Κανένα χειροπιαστό όφελος από την γενικευμένη χρήση μάσκας

Οποιος θελει μελέτες, εδω οι αναφορες. Σας φτανουν 178; Μετα-ανάλυση 178 επιστημονικών μελετών: Κανένα χειροπιαστό όφελος από την γενικευμένη χρήση μάσκας

1. World Health Organization . WHO-Advice on the Use of Masks in the Context of COVID-19: Interim Guidance, 6 April 2020. World Health Organization; Geneva, Switzerland: 2020. [(accessed on 7 November 2020)]. Available online: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/331693. [Google Scholar]

2. World Health Organization . WHO-Advice on the Use of Masks in the Context of COVID-19: Interim Guidance, 5 June 2020. World Health Organization; Geneva, Switzerland: 2020. [(accessed on 7 November 2020)]. Available online: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/332293. [Google Scholar]

3. Chu D.K., Akl E.A., Duda S., Solo K., Yaacoub S., Schünemann H.J., Chu D.K., Akl E.A., El-harakeh A., Bognanni A., et al. Physical Distancing, Face Masks, and Eye Protection to Prevent Person-to-Person Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Lancet. 2020;395:1973–1987. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31142-9. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

4. Jefferson T., Jones M., Ansari L.A.A., Bawazeer G., Beller E., Clark J., Conly J., Mar C.D., Dooley E., Ferroni E., et al. Physical Interventions to Interrupt or Reduce the Spread of Respiratory Viruses. Part 1-Face Masks, Eye Protection and Person Distancing: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. medRxiv. 2020 doi: 10.1101/2020.03.30.20047217. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

5. Kappstein I. Mund-Nasen-Schutz in der Öffentlichkeit: Keine Hinweise für eine Wirksamkeit. Krankenh. Up2date. 2020;15:279–295. doi: 10.1055/a-1174-6591. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

6. De Brouwer C. Wearing a Mask, a Universal Solution against COVID-19 or an Additional Health Risk? [(accessed on 12 November 2020)];2020 doi: 10.13140/RG.2.2.32273.66403. Available online: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3676885. [CrossRef]

7. Ewig S., Gatermann S., Lemmen S. Die Maskierte Gesellschaft. Pneumologie. 2020;74:405–408. doi: 10.1055/a-1199-4525. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

8. Great Barrington Declaration Great Barrington Declaration and Petition. [(accessed on 9 November 2020)]; Available online: https://gbdeclaration.org/

9. WMA-The World Medical Association-WMA Declaration of Geneva. [(accessed on 7 November 2020)]; Available online: https://www.wma.net/policies-post/wma-declaration-of-geneva/

10. WMA-The World Medical Association-WMA Declaration of Helsinki–Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects. [(accessed on 7 November 2020)]; Available online: https://www.wma.net/policies-post/wma-declaration-of-geneva/

11. WMA-The World Medical Association-WMA Declaration of Lisbon on the Rights of the Patient. [(accessed on 7 November 2020)]; Available online: https://www.wma.net/…/wma-declaration-of-lisbon-on-the…/

12. Villalonga-Olives E., Kawachi I. The Dark Side of Social Capital: A Systematic Review of the Negative Health Effects of Social Capital. Soc. Sci. Med. 2017;194:105–127. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.10.020. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

13. Butz U. Ph.D. Thesis. Fakultät für Medizin der Technischen Universität München; Munich, Germany: 2005. Rückatmung von Kohlendioxid bei Verwendung von Operationsmasken als hygienischer Mundschutz an medizinischem Fachpersonal. [Google Scholar]

14. Smolka L., Borkowski J., Zaton M. The Effect of Additional Dead Space on Respiratory Exchange Ratio and Carbon Dioxide Production Due to Training. J. Sports Sci. Med. 2014;13:36–43. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

15. Roberge R.J., Kim J.-H., Benson S.M. Absence of Consequential Changes in Physiological, Thermal and Subjective Responses from Wearing a Surgical Mask. Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 2012;181:29–35. doi: 10.1016/j.resp.2012.01.010. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

16. Matuschek C., Moll F., Fangerau H., Fischer J.C., Zänker K., van Griensven M., Schneider M., Kindgen-Milles D., Knoefel W.T., Lichtenberg A., et al. Face Masks: Benefits and Risks during the COVID-19 Crisis. Eur. J. Med. Res. 2020;25:32. doi: 10.1186/s40001-020-00430-5. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

17. Roberge R.J., Coca A., Williams W.J., Powell J.B., Palmiero A.J. Physiological Impact of the N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirator on Healthcare Workers. Respir. Care. 2010;55:569–577. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

18. Pifarré F., Zabala D.D., Grazioli G., de Yzaguirre i Maura I. COVID 19 and Mask in Sports. Apunt. Sports Med. 2020 doi: 10.1016/j.apunsm.2020.06.002. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

19. Rebmann T., Carrico R., Wang J. Physiologic and Other Effects and Compliance with Long-Term Respirator Use among Medical Intensive Care Unit Nurses. Am. J. Infect. Control. 2013;41:1218–1223. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2013.02.017. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

20. Roeckner J.T., Krstić N., Sipe B.H., Običan S.G. N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirator Use during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review. Am. J. Perinatol. 2020;37:995–1001. doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1712475. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

21. Georgi C., Haase-Fielitz A., Meretz D., Gäsert L., Butter C. Einfluss gängiger Gesichtsmasken auf physiologische Parameter und Belastungsempfinden unter arbeitstypischer körperlicher Anstrengung. Deutsches Ärzteblatt. 2020:674–675. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.2020.0674. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

22. Roberge R.J., Kim J.-H., Powell J.B. N95 Respirator Use during Advanced Pregnancy. Am. J. Infect. Control. 2014;42:1097–1100. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2014.06.025. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

23. Kyung S.Y., Kim Y., Hwang H., Park J.-W., Jeong S.H. Risks of N95 Face Mask Use in Subjects with COPD. Respir. Care. 2020;65:658–664. doi: 10.4187/respcare.06713. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

24. Epstein D., Korytny A., Isenberg Y., Marcusohn E., Zukermann R., Bishop B., Minha S., Raz A., Miller A. Return to Training in the COVID-19 Era: The Physiological Effects of Face Masks during Exercise. Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports. 2020 doi: 10.1111/sms.13832. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

25. Mo Y., Wei D., Mai Q., Chen C., Yu H., Jiang C., Tan X. Risk and Impact of Using Mask on COPD Patients with Acute Exacerbation during the COVID-19 Outbreak: A Retrospective Study. Res. Sq. 2020 doi: 10.21203/rs.3.rs-39747/v1. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

26. Goh D.Y.T., Mun M.W., Lee W.L.J., Teoh O.H., Rajgor D.D. A Randomised Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety, Fit, Comfort of a Novel N95 Mask in Children. Sci. Rep. 2019;9:18952. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-55451-w. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

27. Bharatendu C., Ong J.J.Y., Goh Y., Tan B.Y.Q., Chan A.C.Y., Tang J.Z.Y., Leow A.S., Chin A., Sooi K.W.X., Tan Y.L., et al. Powered Air Purifying Respirator (PAPR) Restores the N95 Face Mask Induced Cerebral Hemodynamic Alterations among Healthcare Workers during COVID-19 Outbreak. J. Neurol. Sci. 2020;417:117078. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2020.117078. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

28. Tong P.S.Y., Kale A.S., Ng K., Loke A.P., Choolani M.A., Lim C.L., Chan Y.H., Chong Y.S., Tambyah P.A., Yong E.-L. Respiratory Consequences of N95-Type Mask Usage in Pregnant Healthcare Workers—A Controlled Clinical Study. Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control. 2015;4:48. doi: 10.1186/s13756-015-0086-z. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

29. Liu C., Li G., He Y., Zhang Z., Ding Y. Effects of Wearing Masks on Human Health and Comfort during the COVID-19 Pandemic. IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 2020;531:012034. doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/531/1/012034. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

30. Beder A., Büyükkoçak U., Sabuncuoğlu H., Keskil Z.A., Keskil S. Preliminary Report on Surgical Mask Induced Deoxygenation during Major Surgery. Neurocirugía. 2008;19:121–126. doi: 10.1016/S1130-1473(08)70235-5. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

31. Fikenzer S., Uhe T., Lavall D., Rudolph U., Falz R., Busse M., Hepp P., Laufs U. Effects of Surgical and FFP2/N95 Face Masks on Cardiopulmonary Exercise Capacity. Clin. Res. Cardiol. 2020;109:1522–1530. doi: 10.1007/s00392-020-01704-y. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

32. Jagim A.R., Dominy T.A., Camic C.L., Wright G., Doberstein S., Jones M.T., Oliver J.M. Acute Effects of the Elevation Training Mask on Strength Performance in Recreational Weight Lifters. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2018;32:482–489. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000002308. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

33. Porcari J.P., Probst L., Forrester K., Doberstein S., Foster C., Cress M.L., Schmidt K. Effect of Wearing the Elevation Training Mask on Aerobic Capacity, Lung Function, and Hematological Variables. J. Sports Sci. Med. 2016;15:379–386. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

34. Kao T.-W., Huang K.-C., Huang Y.-L., Tsai T.-J., Hsieh B.-S., Wu M.-S. The Physiological Impact of Wearing an N95 Mask during Hemodialysis as a Precaution against SARS in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease. J. Formos. Med. Assoc. 2004;103:624–628. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

35. Li Y., Tokura H., Guo Y.P., Wong A.S.W., Wong T., Chung J., Newton E. Effects of Wearing N95 and Surgical Facemasks on Heart Rate, Thermal Stress and Subjective Sensations. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health. 2005;78:501–509. doi: 10.1007/s00420-004-0584-4. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

36. Johnson A.T. Respirator Masks Protect Health but Impact Performance: A Review. J. Biol. Eng. 2016;10:4. doi: 10.1186/s13036-016-0025-4. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

37. Rosner E. Adverse Effects of Prolonged Mask Use among Healthcare Professionals during COVID-19. J. Infect. Dis. Epidemiol. 2020 doi: 10.23937/2474-3658/1510130. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

38. Azuma K., Kagi N., Yanagi U., Osawa H. Effects of Low-Level Inhalation Exposure to Carbon Dioxide in Indoor Environments: A Short Review on Human Health and Psychomotor Performance. Environ. Int. 2018;121:51–56. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.08.059. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

39. Drechsler M., Morris J. StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing; Treasure Island, FL, USA: 2020. Carbon Dioxide Narcosis. [Google Scholar]

40. Noble J., Jones J.G., Davis E.J. Cognitive Function during Moderate Hypoxaemia. Anaesth. Intensive Care. 1993;21:180–184. doi: 10.1177/0310057X9302100208. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

41. Fothergill D.M., Hedges D., Morrison J.B. Effects of CO2 and N2 Partial Pressures on Cognitive and Psychomotor Performance. Undersea Biomed. Res. 1991;18:1–19. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

42. Spitzer M. Masked Education? The Benefits and Burdens of Wearing Face Masks in Schools during the Current Corona Pandemic. Trends Neurosci. Educ. 2020;20:100138. doi: 10.1016/j.tine.2020.100138. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

43. Heider C.A., Álvarez M.L., Fuentes-López E., González C.A., León N.I., Verástegui D.C., Badía P.I., Napolitano C.A. Prevalence of Voice Disorders in Healthcare Workers in the Universal Masking COVID-19 Era. Laryngoscope. 2020 doi: 10.1002/lary.29172. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

44. Roberge R.J., Kim J.-H., Coca A. Protective Facemask Impact on Human Thermoregulation: An Overview. Ann. Occup. Hyg. 2012;56:102–112. doi: 10.1093/annhyg/mer069. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

45. Palmiero A.J., Symons D., Morgan J.W., Shaffer R.E. Speech Intelligelibility Assessment of Protective Facemasks and Air-Purifying Respirators. J. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 2016;13:960–968. doi: 10.1080/15459624.2016.1200723. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

46. Simonton D., Spears M. Human Health Effects from Exposure to Low-Level Concentrations of Hydrogen Sulfide. Occup. Health Saf. (Waco Tex.) 2007;76:102–104. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

47. Salimi F., Morgan G., Rolfe M., Samoli E., Cowie C.T., Hanigan I., Knibbs L., Cope M., Johnston F.H., Guo Y., et al. Long-Term Exposure to Low Concentrations of Air Pollutants and Hospitalisation for Respiratory Diseases: A Prospective Cohort Study in Australia. Environ. Int. 2018;121:415–420. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.08.050. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

48. Dominici F., Schwartz J., Di Q., Braun D., Choirat C., Zanobetti A. Assessing Adverse Health Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Low Levels of Ambient Air Pollution: Phase 1 Research Report. Health Effects Institute; Boston, MA, USA: 2019. pp. 1–51. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

49. Alleva R., Manzella N., Gaetani S., Bacchetti T., Bracci M., Ciarapica V., Monaco F., Borghi B., Amati M., Ferretti G., et al. Mechanism Underlying the Effect of Long-Term Exposure to Low Dose of Pesticides on DNA Integrity. Environ. Toxicol. 2018;33:476–487. doi: 10.1002/tox.22534. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

50. Roh T., Lynch C.F., Weyer P., Wang K., Kelly K.M., Ludewig G. Low-Level Arsenic Exposure from Drinking Water Is Associated with Prostate Cancer in Iowa. Environ. Res. 2017;159:338–343. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2017.08.026. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

51. Deering K.E., Callan A.C., Prince R.L., Lim W.H., Thompson P.L., Lewis J.R., Hinwood A.L., Devine A. Low-Level Cadmium Exposure and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Elderly Australian Women: A Cohort Study. Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health. 2018;221:347–354. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2017.12.007. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

52. Kosnett M. Ingestion of Lead from Spent Ammunition: Implications for Wildlife and Humans. The Peregrine Fund; Boise, ID, USA: 2009. Health Effects of Low Dose Lead Exposure in Adults and Children, and Preventable Risk Posed by the Consumption of Game Meat Harvested with Lead Ammunition. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

53. Crinnion W.J. Environmental Medicine, Part Three: Long-Term Effects of Chronic Low-Dose Mercury Exposure. Altern. Med. Rev. 2000;5:209–223. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

54. Wu S., Han J., Vleugels R.A., Puett R., Laden F., Hunter D.J., Qureshi A.A. Cumulative Ultraviolet Radiation Flux in Adulthood and Risk of Incident Skin Cancers in Women. Br. J. Cancer. 2014;110:1855–1861. doi: 10.1038/bjc.2014.43. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

55. Custodis F., Schirmer S.H., Baumhäkel M., Heusch G., Böhm M., Laufs U. Vascular Pathophysiology in Response to Increased Heart Rate. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2010;56:1973–1983. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2010.09.014. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

56. Russo M.A., Santarelli D.M., O’Rourke D. The Physiological Effects of Slow Breathing in the Healthy Human. Breathe. 2017;13:298–309. doi: 10.1183/20734735.009817. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

57. Nuckowska M.K., Gruszecki M., Kot J., Wolf J., Guminski W., Frydrychowski A.F., Wtorek J., Narkiewicz K., Winklewski P.J. Impact of Slow Breathing on the Blood Pressure and Subarachnoid Space Width Oscillations in Humans. Sci. Rep. 2019;9:6232. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-42552-9. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

58. Johnson A.T., Scott W.H., Lausted C.G., Coyne K.M., Sahota M.S., Johnson M.M. Effect of External Dead Volume on Performance While Wearing a Respirator. AIHAJ-Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. 2000;61:678–684. doi: 10.1202/0002-8894(2000)061<0678:EOEDVO>2.0.CO;2. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

59. Xu M., Lei Z., Yang J. Estimating the Dead Space Volume between a Headform and N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirator Using Microsoft Kinect. J. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 2015;12:538–546. doi: 10.1080/15459624.2015.1019078. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

60. Lee H.P., Wang D.Y. Objective Assessment of Increase in Breathing Resistance of N95 Respirators on Human Subjects. Ann. Occup. Hyg. 2011;55:917–921. doi: 10.1093/annhyg/mer065. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

61. Roberge R., Bayer E., Powell J., Coca A., Roberge M., Benson S. Effect of Exhaled Moisture on Breathing Resistance of N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirators. Ann. Occup. Hyg. 2010;54:671–677. doi: 10.1093/annhyg/meq042. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

62. Jamjoom A., Nikkar-Esfahani A., Fitzgerald J. Operating Theatre Related Syncope in Medical Students: A Cross Sectional Study. BMC Med. Educ. 2009;9:14. doi: 10.1186/1472-6920-9-14. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

63. Asadi-Pooya A.A., Cross J.H. Is Wearing a Face Mask Safe for People with Epilepsy? Acta Neurol. Scand. 2020;142:314–316. doi: 10.1111/ane.13316. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

64. Lazzarino A.I., Steptoe A., Hamer M., Michie S. Covid-19: Important Potential Side Effects of Wearing Face Masks That We Should Bear in Mind. BMJ. 2020;369:m2003. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m2003. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

65. Guaranha M.S.B., Garzon E., Buchpiguel C.A., Tazima S., Yacubian E.M.T., Sakamoto A.C. Hyperventilation Revisited: Physiological Effects and Efficacy on Focal Seizure Activation in the Era of Video-EEG Monitoring. Epilepsia. 2005;46:69–75. doi: 10.1111/j.0013-9580.2005.11104.x. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

66. Ong J.J.Y., Bharatendu C., Goh Y., Tang J.Z.Y., Sooi K.W.X., Tan Y.L., Tan B.Y.Q., Teoh H.-L., Ong S.T., Allen D.M., et al. Headaches Associated With Personal Protective Equipment-A Cross-Sectional Study among Frontline Healthcare Workers During COVID-19. Headache. 2020;60:864–877. doi: 10.1111/head.13811. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

67. Jacobs J.L., Ohde S., Takahashi O., Tokuda Y., Omata F., Fukui T. Use of Surgical Face Masks to Reduce the Incidence of the Common Cold among Health Care Workers in Japan: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Am. J. Infect. Control. 2009;37:417–419. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2008.11.002. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

68. Ramirez-Moreno J.M. Mask-Associated de Novo Headache in Healthcare Workers during the Covid-19 Pandemic. medRxiv. 2020 doi: 10.1101/2020.08.07.20167957. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

69. Shenal B.V., Radonovich L.J., Cheng J., Hodgson M., Bender B.S. Discomfort and Exertion Associated with Prolonged Wear of Respiratory Protection in a Health Care Setting. J. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 2011;9:59–64. doi: 10.1080/15459624.2012.635133. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

70. Rains S.A. The Nature of Psychological Reactance Revisited: A Meta-Analytic Review. Hum. Commun. Res. 2013;39:47–73. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2958.2012.01443.x. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

71. Matusiak Ł., Szepietowska M., Krajewski P., Białynicki-Birula R., Szepietowski J.C. Inconveniences Due to the Use of Face Masks during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Survey Study of 876 Young People. Dermatol. Ther. 2020;33:e13567. doi: 10.1111/dth.13567. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

72. Foo C.C.I., Goon A.T.J., Leow Y., Goh C. Adverse Skin Reactions to Personal Protective Equipment against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome–a Descriptive Study in Singapore. Contact Dermat. 2006;55:291–294. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0536.2006.00953.x. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

73. Hua W., Zuo Y., Wan R., Xiong L., Tang J., Zou L., Shu X., Li L. Short-Term Skin Reactions Following Use of N95 Respirators and Medical Masks. Contact Dermat. 2020;83:115–121. doi: 10.1111/cod.13601. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

74. Prousa D. Studie zu psychischen und psychovegetativen Beschwerden mit den aktuellen Mund-Nasenschutz-Verordnungen. PsychArchives. 2020 doi: 10.23668/psycharchives.3135. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

75. Sell T.K., Hosangadi D., Trotochaud M. Misinformation and the US Ebola Communication Crisis: Analyzing the Veracity and Content of Social Media Messages Related to a Fear-Inducing Infectious Disease Outbreak. BMC Public Health. 2020;20:550. doi: 10.1186/s12889-020-08697-3. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

76. Ryan R.M., Deci E.L. Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research. 3rd ed. The Guilford Press; New York, NY, USA: 2008. Self-determination theory and the role of basic psychological needs in personality and the organization of behavior; pp. 654–678. [Google Scholar]

77. Kent J.M., Papp L.A., Martinez J.M., Browne S.T., Coplan J.D., Klein D.F., Gorman J.M. Specificity of Panic Response to CO(2) Inhalation in Panic Disorder: A Comparison with Major Depression and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder. Am. J. Psychiatry. 2001;158:58–67. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.158.1.58. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

78. Morris L.S., McCall J.G., Charney D.S., Murrough J.W. The Role of the Locus Coeruleus in the Generation of Pathological Anxiety. Brain Neurosci. Adv. 2020;4 doi: 10.1177/2398212820930321. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

79. Gorman J.M., Askanazi J., Liebowitz M.R., Fyer A.J., Stein J., Kinney J.M., Klein D.F. Response to Hyperventilation in a Group of Patients with Panic Disorder. Am. J. Psychiatry. 1984;141:857–861. doi: 10.1176/ajp.141.7.857. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

80. Tsugawa A., Sakurai S., Inagawa Y., Hirose D., Kaneko Y., Ogawa Y., Serisawa S., Takenoshita N., Sakurai H., Kanetaka H., et al. Awareness of the COVID-19 Outbreak and Resultant Depressive Tendencies in Patients with Severe Alzheimer’s Disease. JAD. 2020;77:539–541. doi: 10.3233/JAD-200832. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

81. Maguire P.A., Reay R.E., Looi J.C. Nothing to Sneeze at-Uptake of Protective Measures against an Influenza Pandemic by People with Schizophrenia: Willingness and Perceived Barriers. Australas. Psychiatry. 2019;27:171–178. doi: 10.1177/1039856218815748. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

82. COVID-19: Considerations for Wearing Masks|CDC. [(accessed on 12 November 2020)]; Available online: https://www.cdc.gov/…/cloth-face-cover-guidance.html.

83. Lim E.C.H., Seet R.C.S., Lee K.-H., Wilder-Smith E.P.V., Chuah B.Y.S., Ong B.K.C. Headaches and the N95 Face-mask amongst Healthcare Providers. Acta Neurol. Scand. 2006;113:199–202. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2005.00560.x. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

84. Badri F.M.A. Surgical Mask Contact Dermatitis and Epidemiology of Contact Dermatitis in Healthcare Workers. Curr. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2017;30:183–188. [Google Scholar]

85. Scarano A., Inchingolo F., Lorusso F. Facial Skin Temperature and Discomfort When Wearing Protective Face Masks: Thermal Infrared Imaging Evaluation and Hands Moving the Mask. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 2020;17:4624. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17134624. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

86. Luksamijarulkul P., Aiempradit N., Vatanasomboon P. Microbial Contamination on Used Surgical Masks among Hospital Personnel and Microbial Air Quality in Their Working Wards: A Hospital in Bangkok. Oman Med. J. 2014;29:346–350. doi: 10.5001/omj.2014.92. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

87. Chughtai A.A., Stelzer-Braid S., Rawlinson W., Pontivivo G., Wang Q., Pan Y., Zhang D., Zhang Y., Li L., MacIntyre C.R. Contamination by Respiratory Viruses on Outer Surface of Medical Masks Used by Hospital Healthcare Workers. BMC Infect. Dis. 2019;19:491. doi: 10.1186/s12879-019-4109-x. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

88. Monalisa A.C., Padma K.B., Manjunath K., Hemavathy E., Varsha D. Microbial Contamination of the Mouth Masks Used by Post-Graduate Students in a Private Dental Institution: An In-Vitro Study. IOSR J. Dent. Med. Sci. 2017;16:61–67. [Google Scholar]

89. Liu Z., Chang Y., Chu W., Yan M., Mao Y., Zhu Z., Wu H., Zhao J., Dai K., Li H., et al. Surgical Masks as Source of Bacterial Contamination during Operative Procedures. J. Orthop. Transl. 2018;14:57–62. doi: 10.1016/j.jot.2018.06.002. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

90. Robert Koch-Institut . Influenza-Monatsbericht. Robert Koch-Institut; Berlin, Germany: 2020. [Google Scholar]

91. Techasatian L., Lebsing S., Uppala R., Thaowandee W., Chaiyarit J., Supakunpinyo C., Panombualert S., Mairiang D., Saengnipanthkul S., Wichajarn K., et al. The Effects of the Face Mask on the Skin Underneath: A Prospective Survey During the COVID-19 Pandemic. J. Prim. Care Community Health. 2020;11:2150132720966167. doi: 10.1177/2150132720966167. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

92. Lan J., Song Z., Miao X., Li H., Li Y., Dong L., Yang J., An X., Zhang Y., Yang L., et al. Skin Damage among Health Care Workers Managing Coronavirus Disease-2019. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 2020;82:1215–1216. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2020.03.014. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

93. Szepietowski J.C., Matusiak Ł., Szepietowska M., Krajewski P.K., Białynicki-Birula R. Face Mask-Induced Itch: A Self-Questionnaire Study of 2,315 Responders during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Acta Derm.-Venereol. 2020;100:adv00152. doi: 10.2340/00015555-3536. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

94. Darlenski R., Tsankov N. COVID-19 Pandemic and the Skin: What Should Dermatologists Know? Clin. Dermatol. 2020 doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2020.03.012. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

95. Muley P., ‘Mask Mouth’-a Novel Threat to Oral Health in the COVID Era–Dr Pooja Muley Dental Tribune South Asia 2020. [(accessed on 12 November 2020)]; Available online: https://in.dental-tribune.com/…/mask-mouth-a-novel…/

96. Klimek L., Huppertz T., Alali A., Spielhaupter M., Hörmann K., Matthias C., Hagemann J. A New Form of Irritant Rhinitis to Filtering Facepiece Particle (FFP) Masks (FFP2/N95/KN95 Respirators) during COVID-19 Pandemic. World Allergy Organ. J. 2020;13:100474. doi: 10.1016/j.waojou.2020.100474. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

97. COVID-19 Mythbusters–World Health Organization. [(accessed on 28 January 2021)]; Available online: https://www.who.int/…/advice-for-public/myth-busters.

98. Asadi S., Cappa C.D., Barreda S., Wexler A.S., Bouvier N.M., Ristenpart W.D. Efficacy of Masks and Face Coverings in Controlling Outward Aerosol Particle Emission from Expiratory Activities. Sci. Rep. 2020;10:15665. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-72798-7. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

99. Wong C.K.M., Yip B.H.K., Mercer S., Griffiths S., Kung K., Wong M.C., Chor J., Wong S.Y. Effect of Facemasks on Empathy and Relational Continuity: A Randomised Controlled Trial in Primary Care. BMC Fam. Pract. 2013;14:200. doi: 10.1186/1471-2296-14-200. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

100. World Health Organization. United Nations Children’s Fund . WHO-Advice on the Use of Masks for Children in the Community in the Context of COVID-19: Annex to the Advice on the Use of Masks in the Context of COVID-19, 21 August 2020. World Health Organization; Geneva, Switzerland: 2020. [Google Scholar]

101. Person E., Lemercier C., Royer A., Reychler G. Effet du port d’un masque de soins lors d’un test de marche de six minutes chez des sujets sains. Rev. Mal. Respir. 2018;35:264–268. doi: 10.1016/j.rmr.2017.01.010. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

102. Johnson A.T., Scott W.H., Phelps S.J., Caretti D.M., Koh F.C. How Is Respirator Comfort Affected by Respiratory Resistance? J. Int. Soc. Respir. Prot. 2005;22:38. [Google Scholar]

103. Koh F.C., Johnson A.T., Scott W.H., Phelps S.J., Francis E.B., Cattungal S. The Correlation between Personality Type and Performance Time While Wearing a Respirator. J. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 2006;3:317–322. doi: 10.1080/15459620600691264. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

104. Deutsche Gesetzliche Unfallversicherung . In: DGUV Grundsätze für Arbeitsmedizinische Vorsorgeuntersuchungen. Alfons W., editor. Gentner Verlag; Stuttgart, Germany: 2010. [Google Scholar]

105. Browse by Country-NATLEX. [(accessed on 28 January 2021)]; Available online: https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex4.byCountry?p_lang=en.

106. BAuA-SARS-CoV-2 FAQ Und Weitere Informationen-Kennzeichnung von Masken Aus USA, Kanada, Australien/Neuseeland, Japan, China Und Korea-Bundesanstalt Für Arbeitsschutz Und Arbeitsmedizin. [(accessed on 28 January 2021)]; Available online: https://www.baua.de/…/Cor…/pdf/Kennzeichnung-Masken.html.

107. Veit M. Hauptsache Maske!? [(accessed on 12 November 2020)];DAZ.Online. 2020 :S26. Available online: https://www.deutsche-apotheker-zeitung.de/…/hauptsache….

108. MacIntyre C.R., Seale H., Dung T.C., Hien N.T., Nga P.T., Chughtai A.A., Rahman B., Dwyer D.E., Wang Q. A Cluster Randomised Trial of Cloth Masks Compared with Medical Masks in Healthcare Workers. BMJ Open. 2015;5:e006577. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006577. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

109. MacIntyre C.R., Chughtai A.A. Facemasks for the Prevention of Infection in Healthcare and Community Settings. BMJ. 2015;350:h694. doi: 10.1136/bmj.h694. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

110. MacIntyre C.R., Wang Q., Seale H., Yang P., Shi W., Gao Z., Rahman B., Zhang Y., Wang X., Newall A.T., et al. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Three Options for N95 Respirators and Medical Masks in Health Workers. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2013;187:960–966. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201207-1164OC. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

111. Dellweg D., Lepper P.M., Nowak D., Köhnlein T., Olgemöller U., Pfeifer M. Position Paper of the German Respiratory Society (DGP) on the Impact of Community Masks on Self-Protection and Protection of Others in Regard to Aerogen Transmitted Diseases. Pneumologie. 2020;74:331–336. doi: 10.1055/a-1175-8578. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar] Μετα-ανάλυση 178 επιστημονικών μελετών: Κανένα χειροπιαστό όφελος από την γενικευμένη χρήση μάσκας

112. Luckman A., Zeitoun H., Isoni A., Loomes G., Vlaev I., Powdthavee N., Read D. Risk Compensation during COVID-19: The Impact of Face Mask Usage on Social Distancing. [(accessed on 25 October 2020)];OSF Preprints. 2020 Available online: https://osf.io/rb8he/

113. Sharma I., Vashnav M., Sharma R. COVID-19 Pandemic Hype: Losers and Gainers. Indian J. Psychiatry. 2020;62:S420–S430. doi: 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_1060_20. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

114. BfArM-Empfehlungen Des BfArM-Hinweise Des BfArM Zur Verwendung von Mund–Nasen-Bedeckungen (z.B Selbst Hergestellten Masken, “Community-Oder DIY-Masken”), Medizinischen Gesichtsmasken Sowie Partikelfiltrierenden Halbmasken (FFP1, FFP2 Und FFP3) Im Zusammenhang Mit Dem Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2/Covid-19) [(accessed on 12 November 2020)]; Available online: https://www.bfarm.de/…/Medizinprod…/DE/schutzmasken.html.

115. MacIntyre C.R., Wang Q., Cauchemez S., Seale H., Dwyer D.E., Yang P., Shi W., Gao Z., Pang X., Zhang Y., et al. A Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Fit-Tested and Non-Fit-Tested N95 Respirators to Medical Masks to Prevent Respiratory Virus Infection in Health Care Workers. Influenza Other Respir. Viruses. 2011;5:170–179. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-2659.2011.00198.x. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

116. Gralton J., McLaws M.-L. Protecting Healthcare Workers from Pandemic Influenza: N95 or Surgical Masks? Crit. Care Med. 2010;38:657–667. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181b9e8b3. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

117. Smith J.D., MacDougall C.C., Johnstone J., Copes R.A., Schwartz B., Garber G.E. Effectiveness of N95 Respirators versus Surgical Masks in Protecting Health Care Workers from Acute Respiratory Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. CMAJ. 2016;188:567–574. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.150835. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

118. Lee S.-A., Grinshpun S.A., Reponen T. Respiratory Performance Offered by N95 Respirators and Surgical Masks: Human Subject Evaluation with NaCl Aerosol Representing Bacterial and Viral Particle Size Range. Ann. Occup. Hyg. 2008;52:177–185. doi: 10.1093/annhyg/men005. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

119. Zhu N., Zhang D., Wang W., Li X., Yang B., Song J., Zhao X., Huang B., Shi W., Lu R., et al. A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019. N. Engl. J. Med. 2020 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001017. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

120. Oberg T., Brosseau L.M. Surgical Mask Filter and Fit Performance. Am. J. Infect. Control. 2008;36:276–282. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2007.07.008. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

121. Eninger R.M., Honda T., Adhikari A., Heinonen-Tanski H., Reponen T., Grinshpun S.A. Filter Performance of N99 and N95 Facepiece Respirators Against Viruses and Ultrafine Particles. Ann. Occup. Hyg. 2008;52:385–396. doi: 10.1093/annhyg/men019. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

122. Morawska L. Droplet Fate in Indoor Environments, or Can We Prevent the Spread of Infection? Indoor Air. 2006;16:335–347. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0668.2006.00432.x. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

123. Ueki H., Furusawa Y., Iwatsuki-Horimoto K., Imai M., Kabata H., Nishimura H., Kawaoka Y. Effectiveness of Face Masks in Preventing Airborne Transmission of SARS-CoV-2. mSphere. 2020;5:e00637-20. doi: 10.1128/mSphere.00637-20. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

124. Radonovich L.J., Simberkoff M.S., Bessesen M.T., Brown A.C., Cummings D.A.T., Gaydos C.A., Los J.G., Krosche A.E., Gibert C.L., Gorse G.J., et al. N95 Respirators vs Medical Masks for Preventing Influenza Among Health Care Personnel: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2019;322:824–833. doi: 10.1001/jama.2019.11645. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

125. Loeb M., Dafoe N., Mahony J., John M., Sarabia A., Glavin V., Webby R., Smieja M., Earn D.J.D., Chong S., et al. Surgical Mask vs N95 Respirator for Preventing Influenza Among Health Care Workers: A Randomized Trial. JAMA. 2009;302:1865–1871. doi: 10.1001/jama.2009.1466. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

126. Konda A., Prakash A., Moss G.A., Schmoldt M., Grant G.D., Guha S. Aerosol Filtration Efficiency of Common Fabrics Used in Respiratory Cloth Masks. ACS Nano. 2020;14:6339–6347. doi: 10.1021/acsnano.0c03252. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

127. Chughtai A. Use of Cloth Masks in the Practice of Infection Control–Evidence and Policy Gaps. Int. J. Infect. Control. 2013;9 doi: 10.3396/IJIC.v9i3.020.13. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

128. Labortest-Schutzmasken im Härtetest: Die Meisten Filtern Ungenügend. [(accessed on 12 November 2020)]; Available online: https://www.srf.ch/…/labortest-schutzmasken-im….

129. MacIntyre C.R., Cauchemez S., Dwyer D.E., Seale H., Cheung P., Browne G., Fasher M., Wood J., Gao Z., Booy R., et al. Face Mask Use and Control of Respiratory Virus Transmission in Households. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2009;15:233–241. doi: 10.3201/eid1502.081166. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

130. Xiao J., Shiu E.Y.C., Gao H., Wong J.Y., Fong M.W., Ryu S., Cowling B.J. Nonpharmaceutical Measures for Pandemic Influenza in Nonhealthcare Settings—Personal Protective and Environmental Measures. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2020;26:967–975. doi: 10.3201/eid2605.190994. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

131. Aiello A.E., Murray G.F., Perez V., Coulborn R.M., Davis B.M., Uddin M., Shay D.K., Waterman S.H., Monto A.S. Mask Use, Hand Hygiene, and Seasonal Influenza-like Illness among Young Adults: A Randomized Intervention Trial. J. Infect. Dis. 2010;201:491–498. doi: 10.1086/650396. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

132. Bundgaard H., Bundgaard J.S., Raaschou-Pedersen D.E.T., von Buchwald C., Todsen T., Norsk J.B., Pries-Heje M.M., Vissing C.R., Nielsen P.B., Winsløw U.C., et al. Effectiveness of Adding a Mask Recommendation to Other Public Health Measures to Prevent SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Danish Mask Wearers. Ann. Intern. Med. 2020 doi: 10.7326/M20-6817. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

133. Smart N.R., Horwell C.J., Smart T.S., Galea K.S. Assessment of the Wearability of Facemasks against Air Pollution in Primary School-Aged Children in London. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 2020;17:3935. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17113935. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

134. Forgie S.E., Reitsma J., Spady D., Wright B., Stobart K. The “Fear Factor” for Surgical Masks and Face Shields, as Perceived by Children and Their Parents. Pediatrics. 2009;124:e777–e781. doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-3709. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

135. Schwarz S., Jenetzky E., Krafft H., Maurer T., Martin D. Corona Children Studies “Co-Ki”: First Results of a Germany-Wide Registry on Mouth and Nose Covering (Mask) in Children. Monatsschrift Kinderheilkde. 2021:1–10. doi: 10.1007/s00112-021-01133-9. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

136. Zoccal D.B., Furuya W.I., Bassi M., Colombari D.S.A., Colombari E. The Nucleus of the Solitary Tract and the Coordination of Respiratory and Sympathetic Activities. Front. Physiol. 2014;5:238. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2014.00238. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

137. Neilson S. The Surgical Mask Is a Bad Fit for Risk Reduction. CMAJ. 2016;188:606–607. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.151236. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

138. SOCIUM Research Center on Inequality and Social Policy, Universität Bremen. [(accessed on 28 January 2021)]; Available online: https://www.socium.uni-bremen.de/ueber…/aktuelles/archiv/

139. Fadare O.O., Okoffo E.D. Covid-19 Face Masks: A Potential Source of Microplastic Fibers in the Environment. Sci. Total Environ. 2020;737:140279. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140279. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

140. Potluri P., Needham P. Technical Textiles for Protection (Manchester EScholar-The University of Manchester) Woodhead Publishing; Cambridge, UK: 2005. [Google Scholar]

141. Schnurr R.E.J., Alboiu V., Chaudhary M., Corbett R.A., Quanz M.E., Sankar K., Srain H.S., Thavarajah V., Xanthos D., Walker T.R. Reducing Marine Pollution from Single-Use Plastics (SUPs): A Review. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2018;137:157–171. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.10.001. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

142. Reid A.J., Carlson A.K., Creed I.F., Eliason E.J., Gell P.A., Johnson P.T.J., Kidd K.A., MacCormack T.J., Olden J.D., Ormerod S.J., et al. Emerging Threats and Persistent Conservation Challenges for Freshwater Biodiversity. Biol. Rev. Camb. Philos. Soc. 2019;94:849–873. doi: 10.1111/brv.12480. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

143. Fisher K.A., Tenforde M.W., Feldstein L.R., Lindsell C.J., Shapiro N.I., Files D.C., Gibbs K.W., Erickson H.L., Prekker M.E., Steingrub J.S., et al. Community and Close Contact Exposures Associated with COVID-19 among Symptomatic Adults ≥18 Years in 11 Outpatient Health Care Facilities-United States, July 2020. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 2020;69:1258–1264. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6936a5. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

144. Belkin N. The Evolution of the Surgical Mask: Filtering Efficiency versus Effectiveness. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 1997;18:49–57. doi: 10.2307/30141964. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

145. Cowling B.J., Chan K.-H., Fang V.J., Cheng C.K.Y., Fung R.O.P., Wai W., Sin J., Seto W.H., Yung R., Chu D.W.S., et al. Facemasks and Hand Hygiene to Prevent Influenza Transmission in Households: A Cluster Randomized Trial. Ann. Intern. Med. 2009;151:437–446. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-151-7-200910060-00142. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

146. Cowling B.J., Zhou Y., Ip D.K.M., Leung G.M., Aiello A.E. Face Masks to Prevent Transmission of Influenza Virus: A Systematic Review. Epidemiol. Infect. 2010;138:449–456. doi: 10.1017/S0950268809991658. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

147. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Personal Protective Equipment for Healthcare Personnel to Prevent Transmission of Pandemic Influenza and Other Viral Respiratory Infections: Current Research Issues. In: Larson E.L., Liverman C.T., editors. Preventing Transmission of Pandemic Influenza and Other Viral Respiratory Diseases: Personal Protective Equipment for Healthcare Personnel: Update 2010. National Academies Press (US); Washington, DC, USA: 2011. [Google Scholar]

148. Matuschek C., Moll F., Fangerau H., Fischer J.C., Zänker K., van Griensven M., Schneider M., Kindgen-Milles D., Knoefel W.T., Lichtenberg A., et al. The History and Value of Face Masks. Eur. J. Med. Res. 2020;25:23. doi: 10.1186/s40001-020-00423-4. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

149. Spooner J.L. History of Surgical Face Masks. AORN J. 1967;5:76–80. doi: 10.1016/S0001-2092(08)71359-0. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

150. Burgess A., Horii M. Risk, Ritual and Health Responsibilisation: Japan’s “safety Blanket” of Surgical Face Mask-Wearing. Sociol. Health Illn. 2012;34:1184–1198. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9566.2012.01466.x. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

151. Beck U. Risk Society, towards a New Modernity. SAGE Publications Ltd; Thousand Oaks, CA, USA: 1992. [Google Scholar]

152. Cheng K.K., Lam T.H., Leung C.C. Wearing Face Masks in the Community during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Altruism and Solidarity. Lancet. 2020 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30918-1. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

153. Melnychuk M.C., Dockree P.M., O’Connell R.G., Murphy P.R., Balsters J.H., Robertson I.H. Coupling of Respiration and Attention via the Locus Coeruleus: Effects of Meditation and Pranayama. Psychophysiology. 2018;55:e13091. doi: 10.1111/psyp.13091. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

154. Andresen M.C., Kunze D.L. Nucleus Tractus Solitarius–Gateway to Neural Circulatory Control. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 1994;56:93–116. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ph.56.030194.000521. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

155. Kline D.D., Ramirez-Navarro A., Kunze D.L. Adaptive Depression in Synaptic Transmission in the Nucleus of the Solitary Tract after In Vivo Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia: Evidence for Homeostatic Plasticity. J. Neurosci. 2007;27:4663–4673. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4946-06.2007. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

156. King T.L., Heesch C.M., Clark C.G., Kline D.D., Hasser E.M. Hypoxia Activates Nucleus Tractus Solitarii Neurons Projecting to the Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 2012;302:R1219–R1232. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00028.2012. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

157. Yackle K., Schwarz L.A., Kam K., Sorokin J.M., Huguenard J.R., Feldman J.L., Luo L., Krasnow M.A. Breathing Control Center Neurons That Promote Arousal in Mice. Science. 2017;355:1411–1415. doi: 10.1126/science.aai7984. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

158. Menuet C., Connelly A.A., Bassi J.K., Melo M.R., Le S., Kamar J., Kumar N.N., McDougall S.J., McMullan S., Allen A.M. PreBötzinger Complex Neurons Drive Respiratory Modulation of Blood Pressure and Heart Rate. eLife. 2020;9:e57288. doi: 10.7554/eLife.57288. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

159. Zope S.A., Zope R.A. Sudarshan Kriya Yoga: Breathing for Health. Int. J. Yoga. 2013;6:4–10. doi: 10.4103/0973-6131.105935. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

160. Cummins E.P., Strowitzki M.J., Taylor C.T. Mechanisms and Consequences of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Sensing in Mammals. Physiol. Rev. 2020;100:463–488. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00003.2019. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

161. Jafari M.J., Khajevandi A.A., Mousavi Najarkola S.A., Yekaninejad M.S., Pourhoseingholi M.A., Omidi L., Kalantary S. Association of Sick Building Syndrome with Indoor Air Parameters. Tanaffos. 2015;14:55–62. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

162. Redlich C.A., Sparer J., Cullen M.R. Sick-Building Syndrome. Lancet. 1997;349:1013–1016. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(96)07220-0. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

163. Kaw R., Hernandez A.V., Walker E., Aboussouan L., Mokhlesi B. Determinants of Hypercapnia in Obese Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Systematic Review and Metaanalysis of Cohort Studies. Chest. 2009;136:787–796. doi: 10.1378/chest.09-0615. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

164. Edwards N., Wilcox I., Polo O.J., Sullivan C.E. Hypercapnic Blood Pressure Response Is Greater during the Luteal Phase of the Menstrual Cycle. J. Appl. Physiol. 1996;81:2142–2146. doi: 10.1152/jappl.1996.81.5.2142. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

165. AAFA Community Services What People with Asthma Need to Know about Face Masks and Coverings during the COVID-19 Pandemic. [(accessed on 29 January 2021)]; Available online: https://community.aafa.org/…/what-people-with-asthma….

166. Shigemura M., Lecuona E., Angulo M., Homma T., Rodríguez D.A., Gonzalez-Gonzalez F.J., Welch L.C., Amarelle L., Kim S.-J., Kaminski N., et al. Hypercapnia Increases Airway Smooth Muscle Contractility via Caspase-7-Mediated MiR-133a-RhoA Signaling. Sci. Transl. Med. 2018;10:eaat1662. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aat1662. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

167. Roberge R. Facemask Use by Children during Infectious Disease Outbreaks. Biosecur. Bioterror. 2011;9:225–231. doi: 10.1089/bsp.2011.0009. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

168. Schwarz S., Jenetzky E., Krafft H., Maurer T., Steuber C., Reckert T., Fischbach T., Martin D. Corona bei Kindern: Die Co-Ki Studie. Mon. Kinderheilkde. 2020 doi: 10.1007/s00112-020-01050-3. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

169. van der Kleij L.A., De Vis J.B., de Bresser J., Hendrikse J., Siero J.C.W. Arterial CO2 Pressure Changes during Hypercapnia Are Associated with Changes in Brain Parenchymal Volume. Eur. Radiol. Exp. 2020;4:17. doi: 10.1186/s41747-020-0144-z. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

170. Geer Wallace M.A., Pleil J.D. Evolution of Clinical and Environmental Health Applications of Exhaled Breath Research: Review of Methods: Instrumentation for Gas-Phase, Condensate, and Aerosols. Anal. Chim. Acta. 2018;1024:18–38. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2018.01.069. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

171. Sukul P., Schubert J.K., Zanaty K., Trefz P., Sinha A., Kamysek S., Miekisch W. Exhaled Breath Compositions under Varying Respiratory Rhythms Reflects Ventilatory Variations: Translating Breathomics towards Respiratory Medicine. Sci. Rep. 2020;10:14109. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-70993-0. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

172. Lai P.S., Christiani D.C. Long-Term Respiratory Health Effects in Textile Workers. Curr. Opin. Pulm. Med. 2013;19:152–157. doi: 10.1097/MCP.0b013e32835cee9a. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

173. Goetz L.H., Schork N.J. Personalized Medicine: Motivation, Challenges and Progress. Fertil. Steril. 2018;109:952–963. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2018.05.006. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

174. Samannan R., Holt G., Calderon-Candelario R., Mirsaeidi M., Campos M. Effect of Face Masks on Gas Exchange in Healthy Persons and Patients with COPD. Ann. ATS. 2020 doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.202007-812RL. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

175. Streeck H., Schulte B., Kuemmerer B., Richter E., Hoeller T., Fuhrmann C., Bartok E., Dolscheid R., Berger M., Wessendorf L., et al. Infection Fatality Rate of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in a German Community with a Super-Spreading Event. medRxiv. 2020 doi: 10.1101/2020.05.04.20090076. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

176. Ioannidis J. The Infection Fatality Rate of COVID-19 Inferred from Seroprevalence Data. medRxiv. 2020 doi: 10.1101/2020.05.13.20101253. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

177. Executive Board: Special Session on the COVID-19 Response. [(accessed on 13 November 2020)]; Available online: https://www.who.int/…/executive-board-special-session….

178. International Health Conference WHO-Constitution of the World Health Organization. 1946. Bull. World Health Organ. 2002;80:983–984. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

www.proionta-tis-fisis.com

Δείτε περισσότερα

Related Articles

Αφήστε μια απάντηση

Η ηλ. διεύθυνση σας δεν δημοσιεύεται.

Back to top button